Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ri-ng.uaq.mx/handle/123456789/1373
Title: La comunidad de mamíferos medianos y grandes en la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda y su relación con la heterogeneidad y perturbación ambiental
metadata.dc.creator: VALERIA GEORGINA AGOITIA FONSECA
Keywords: BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA;CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA
metadata.dc.date: Dec-2017
Description: La comunidad biológica se ha definido como un conjunto de especies cuyas características individuales les permite vivir en un hábitat específico. Por lo que es necesario documentar las especies de una comunidad, ya que con esta información es posible identificar áreas de alta diversidad, facilitando la planeación para su conservación. Uno de los factores que determinan la distribución y presencia de las comunidades de mamíferos es la heterogeneidad ambiental. Este estudio compara la riqueza y estructura de las comunidades de mamíferos medianos y grandes en cinco sitios de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda (RBSG); así como la relación entre la riqueza y diez variables físicas, de heterogeneidad del paisaje y humanas. Con cámaras trampa se registraron 21 especies de mamíferos silvestres medianos y grandes, siendo el orden Carnivora el más diverso. Se realizó un adecuado esfuerzo de muestreo ya que se documentó más del 98% de la riqueza esperada acorde al estimador de diversidad Chao 2. Por medio de curvas de rango abundancia se encontró una baja equidad entre comunidades. La composición entre sitios se comparó mediante un análisis de similitud y se encontró que en general son disimiles, ya que comparten alrededor del 40% de especies. Con un análisis de correlación de Pearson y modelos de regresiones lineales, se determinó que la riqueza de mamíferos se encuentra relacionada con el área del sitio y la riqueza relativa del paisaje. Además, la heterogeneidad ambiental es una variable explicativa importante para la riqueza de especies.
The biological community is defined as a group of species whose individual characteristics enables them to live in a specific habitat. By documenting the species of an area, it is possible to identify the areas with the greatest biodiversity, making easier the planning for its conservation. One of the environmental factors capable of affecting the distribution and presence of mammal communities is the environmental heterogeneity, which can be natural or a result of human impact. This study seeks to analyze the structure of the medium and large mammalian community in five sites along the Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve (SGBR). A sampling with camera traps was carried out in the years 2014 and 2015, taking into account only the species with a weight greater than 1000 grams. The richness was obtained by direct counting of the species. Independent records were obtained to calculate the relative abundance of each species and the result was multiplied by the logarithm base 10 to elaborate rank-abundance curves and compare the evenness between communities. The completeness of the sampling was determined by comparing the observed and the expected richness resulting from the Chao 2 estimator. The composition between sites was compared by a similarity analysis using the Jaccard index. The habitat of the five sites was characterized based on three kinds of variables: physical, landscape heterogeneity and anthropogenic. The relationship of the variables with mammalian richness was determined with a Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression models. A total of 21 species of medium and large sized mammals were recorded. The sites presented a different evenness between them and a sampling completeness greater than 98%. The mammalian richness is significantly related to the site area and the relative richness of the landscape. It is concluded that the communities of medium and large mammals of the monitored sites of the SGBR are different. Besides, the results show that the environmental heterogeneity is an important explanatory variable for species richness.
URI: http://ri-ng.uaq.mx/handle/123456789/1373
Other Identifiers: mamíferos medianos y grandes
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda
heterogeneidad ambiental
mammals
Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve
environmental heterogeneity
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